The lobes of the brain
The brain is divided into the left and right frontal lobes, parietal lobes, temporal lobes and occipital lobes. Understanding the basic functional anatomy of these different lobes of the brain helps to better understand an injury to these areas.
Frontal Lobe (green) injuries can cause a wide range of problems such as inappropriate behavior, problems with speech and/or memory.
The posterior border of the Frontal Lobe is the Pre-Central Gyrus, also called the "Motor Strip" (red gyrus). Injury to this gyrus may result in paralysis on the opposite side of the body.
The Parietal Lobe (brown) extends from the Post Central Gyrus (Sensory Strip) to the Occipital Lobe. This part of the brain integrates multiple sensory inputs from the various sensory organs. Injury here may affect understanding of 3 dimensional space (drawing a clock, putting on a shirt or a coat), ability to distinguish objects by size, feel (trying to tell the difference between a nickle vs a quarter in one's hand) or even temperature. Right sided injuries may result in "neglecting" the left side (for example, not seeing anything on the left side, not recognizing one's own left hand and even thinking their own left hand belongs to someone else). Left sided injuries may result in inability to calculate, left to right disorientation, loss of finger discrimination. Angular gyrus injuries may result in "word blindness" (unable to read or recognized letters and/or words).
The gyrus just behing the "Motor Strip" (see Frontal Lobe) is the "Sensory Strip". It is also called the Post Central Gyrus (purple). This is the frontal border of the Parietal Lobe. Injury here results in loss of sensation on the opposite side of the body.
The Temporal Lobe appears well defined here (blue area). However, there may be no definitive Temporal-Occipital or Temporal-Parietal border. Injuries to the Temporal Lobe may damage hearing or language function. Visual field pathways (Meyer's Loop) are sometimes associated with Temporal Lobe injuries.
Occipital Lobe (pink) injuries cause a wide range of problems with visual understanding.